Exploring the Discrimination Factors of Marine Women Officers Onboard

  • Mahashweta Das The University of Burdwan
  • Malabika Ray The University of Burdwan
  • Prabir Chakraborty
  • Chiranjib Ghosh Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Planning Department, Govt. of Tripura
Keywords: Discrimination, Women officers, Joint mean & dispersion modelling, Mariners, Unequal variance, Seafaring

Abstract

Seafaring is a challenging working environment for women. For the last two decades, mainly in western countries, women have been showing their existence in the fleet, but as the chief marine, women officers such as captain, executives, or leader posts aboard are very poor with respect to other services. In practice, women continuously face many problems from working environments, and it may be very high in seafaring. The current article aims to determine the factors related to discrimination of women officers (DOWO) onboard based on a data set containing 149 female officers’ responses from 18 different countries. The aimed response DOWO is marked as heteroscedastic. It is derived that the mean (or average) of DOWO is directly linked to women nationality (Spanish = 1; Others = 2) (P=0.0022), while it is reciprocally linked to her professional qualification (P=0.0290) and their male companion’s support (P<0.0001). The DOWO’s variance is reciprocally linked to women nationality (P= 0.0356), while it is directly and partially linked to their age (P=0.1343) and contract’s type (P=0.0799). It is observed that women officers with Spanish nationality, higher qualifications and their male companion’s support can reduce the degree of discrimination against women.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Carol-Dekker, L., & Sultan, S. (2016). Reflections on the psycho-social distress within the international merchant navy seafaring community. Journal of Psychology, 7, 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/09764224.2016.11907844

Cordon, J. R, Sánchez, N. E., & Navas, J. M. M. (2020). Female Officers on Board: Prejudices, Stereotypes and the Leadership Role. Ann Cogn Sci, 4(1), 174-184. https://doi.org/10.36959/447/350

Das, M. (2021). Addressing the trajectory of cultural and gender discrimination among marine women officers. Interdisciplinary Journal of Sociality Studies, 1(3), 16-23.

https://doi.org/10.51986/ijss-2021.vol1.03

Das, R. N. (2012). Discrepancy in fitting between lognormal and gamma models: An illustration. Model Assisted Statistics and Applications, 7(1), 23-32. https://doi.org/10.3233/MAS-2011-0198

Das, R. N. (2014). Robust response surfaces, regression and positive data analyses. Chapman & Hall.

Das, R. N., & Park, J. S. (2012). Discrepancy in regression estimates between Log-normal and Gamma: Some case studies. Journal of Applied Statistics, 39(1), 97-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/02664763.2011.578618

Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., & Friedman, J. (2009). The Elements of Statistical Learning (Second edition). Springer--Verlag.

ILO (2019). Women in the transport sector. ILO, Geneva.

IMO (2013). Busan declaration: The Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation. International Maritime Organization.

IMO (2019a). Regulatory scoping exercise for the use of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS). International Maritime Organization.

IMO (2019b). IMO’s gender programme: New logo to increase visibility for women in maritime. International Maritime Organization.

ISWAN (2019). Promoting and supporting the welfare of seafarers. International Seafarers' Welfare and Assistance Network.

Kitada, M., Williams, E., & Froholdt, L. L. (2015). Maritime women: Global leadership. Springer-Verlag.

Lee, Y., Nelder, J. A., & Pawitan, Y. (2017). Generalised Linear Models with Random Effects (Unified Analysis via H–likelihood) (Second Edition). Chapman & Hall.

Manzano, J. V. (2014). Review of Filipino Crosscurrents: Oceanographies of Seafaring, Masculinities, and Globalization, by K. B. FAJARDO. Philippine Studies: Historical & Ethnographic Viewpoints, 62(2), 289–292. http://www.jstor.org/stable/24672300

UIC (2019). Women and transport: An opportunity for the industry and for new forms of mobility. Catherine Trautmann.

WMU (2020). Serving the global maritime community through education, research and capacity building. World Maritime University.

Published
2022-01-22
How to Cite
Das, M., Ray, M., Chakraborty, P., & Ghosh, C. (2022). Exploring the Discrimination Factors of Marine Women Officers Onboard . Interdisciplinary Journal of Rural and Community Studies , 4, 16-22. https://doi.org/10.51986/ijrcs-2022.vol4.02